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Although it concerns only a minor part of the population, the aeronautical sector accounts for 3% of total greenhouse gas emissions in the world, a weight that continues to grow.

The sector’s carbon intensity per euro generated is one of the highest, making its decarbonization a global priority. The sector has therefore set itself an ambitious goal for 2050: to be net zero.

Alternative fuels for aviation

Various levers are available to stakeholders to achieve this objective: technical levers with the optimization of air traffic and ground operations, new designs and economical engines, the change of energy vectors (hydrogen, electricity) and fuels for sustainable aviation (CAD or SAF). The latter represents 65% of the decarbonization potential of the sector and is therefore the priority for manufacturers and their ecosystems.

Although SAFs are the major technical lever for the decarbonization of aeronautics, their development alone will not allow complete decarbonization and must therefore be considered in a set of technical solutions and societal changes.

The study analyzes the 24 types of SAF conforming to the ASTM standard derived from biomass (biofuels) and the consequences of their use on other sectors of activity, human communities and the environment. E-fuels, produced from synthetic carbon and hydrogen, are outside the scope of this study.

The document includes recommendations by geographical area summarizing each area of analysis: regulatory, economic, social, environmental, industrial, and agricultural competition.

Download the full study and expert insights from Capgemini Invent to learn more.


Sebastien Kahn

Vice President Sustainability & Industry, A&D Sustainability Lead, Capgemini
For the past 15 years, Sébastien Kahn has been supporting public and private players in their major ecological transition projects, in particular energy decarbonization strategies, hydrogen or electric ecosystems, and the associated financing and skills plans. A graduate of ESSEC and MIT, he teaches decarbonization policies at Sciences Po Paris and leads the Capgemini Group’s decarbonization activities in the Aerospace and Defence sector.