Taking a holistic point of view

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This model has helped me to ensure that every problem I attempt to solve is solved holistically rather than ignoring fundamental components that can be easily overlooked

Over the last few years I have encountered a number of client problems where I have not managed to understand the complete context of the situation. With hindsight, I have discovered that this was because I was unable to break up the context into its component parts and in some cases I was unaware that those component parts existed in the first place. The Vantage Points model (copyright © MG Taylor Corporation), shown below has helped me to structure my conversations and ensure that I understand every problem, both in terms of current conditions and future vision from every vantage point.

The model breaks up into 7 key components that, for me, help to construct a holistic picture of any given scenario be the current or possible future. I will share my thoughts about how each of these can help define a problem from bottom up or as I see them from core beliefs to activities:


…makes up the fundamental and core beliefs that unite the organisation or part of the organisation depending on the scope of your problem. These beliefs are not necessarily obvious and are very rarely articulated in any official documentation. This is one of the hardest components to fully understand when trying to understand any given problem as your own beliefs can often change the way you perceive other beliefs. Very few companies or individuals can clearly articulate the beliefs that drive them, even harder is to narrow down the beliefs that they actually have rather than those they want to have or want others to think they have.

You can see philosophy exist both strongly and weakly in organisations, the stronger the philosophy of the organisation the more it is seen in the other vantage points. Companies like Wikipedia, Apple and Google have very strong philosophies that has filtered all the way down into everyday tasks such as greeting customers in a shop. Where the philosophy is weak in an organisation it is more likely that you will find individual pockets of belief that surround individuals or groups of individuals who view the world in their way.


…is often identified as the behaviours exhibited with the organisation. These behaviours are typically a direct physical manifestation of the philosophy or the beliefs within the organisation. There are a number of ways to understand the culture of an organisation, you could talk to those in the organisation to understand how they behave under normal conditions and how they think people should behave or you could observe those in the organisation to see the behaviour. Questions will never give the full picture and the ‘Hawthorne effect’ has pointed out that observation changes the behaviour of the observed individuals so understanding the culture of any organisation is difficult.

Cultural problems exist in an organisation when the behaviours exhibited by individuals do not help to achieve the desired vision or they actively hinder the vision from being achieved.


…states the rules of the game, it includes the purpose, the goals, the rules and the boundaries. Most organisations have many policies and documents to define them. Policy will govern whether behaviours are appropriate, they will determine how the organisation operates. Unlike philosophy and culture, the challenge with understanding policy is the quantity of information available and the possibility of conflicting information.


…is the organisation of resources to achieve the objectives stated by the policy, this usually includes an attempt to maintain growth and ensure sustainability. At a high level this is often represented as organisation diagrams showing business units and hierarchies. At a lower level of detail this can often be represented as delivery plans and roadmaps. A strategy that does not achieve the understood policy creates conflict and suggests that one or the other is wrong, this will also confuse anyone new to the system.


…is the efficient and effective use of available resources to achieve the desired goal. Strategies and tactics are often confused, tactics can be defined as a number of activities to accomplish the overall strategy. I have learnt that the important thing to think about when understanding an organisation’s tactics is how they connect to the defined strategy and policy. Where tactics and strategies conflict is usually where delivery challenges will arise as team members will not know what they are trying to achieve.


…concerns the distribution, management and storage of resources including but not limited to capabilities, knowledge, energy and individuals in the system. Understanding the flow of resources around an organisation will help to understand the context within which people are working in. For example, an individual starts in a company and it takes 5 weeks for him to receive the laptop he requires to do any work. This could make the individual believe that the company doesn’t care about its employees, which will affect his behaviours in the future which could mean that he performs his job below expectation.


…are defined as the jobs that need to be done and how they are done, these are not the tactical activities but the jobs that make up those and other activities. These jobs may include typing documents, creating reports, attending meetings, talking with clients or developing software. The tasks individuals and teams complete on a day to day basis can be traced back through the previous vantage points to understand why those tasks are accomplished in the way they are.

This model has helped me to ensure that every problem I attempt to solve is solved holistically rather than ignoring fundamental components that can be easily overlooked. 5 of the above components are well understood in many organisations, it is with Philosophy and Culture that the least time is spent and yet they often contain some of the most powerful insights.

I discovered the Vantage Points model shortly after I started in the ASE and since then I have been on a voyage of discovery with it, every conversation I have with a client shows me a new aspect of the model, a nuance I hadn’t seen before. I hope you find this model as useful as I have, if you would like to read more about the etymology behind the model please click here to go to the MG Taylor website.

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